Federal Period Landscape References in the Alexandria Gazette
by Debbie Robison
May 2005
Rural Farms and Gardens
Town Lots and Gardens
Influences on Garden Plant Selection and Design

Research on federal period landscapes for this manuscript was conducted by surveying microfilm reels of the Alexandria Gazette for the period of 1784 – 1825. Due to the volume of editions, the search for references to landscape features was typically limited to four newspapers per year, one in each quarter. A slight randomness was achieved by selecting the first newspaper in each quarter at which the advancing film stopped. Several references were often culled from one newspaper edition.

The Alexandria Gazette was published by several different owners and under several name variations, in Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria herein refers to this place. Generally, advertisements for farms in the Virginia counties of Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, and Stafford and the towns of Alexandria, Leesburg, Dumfries, and Waterford were studied.

For ease of reading, italics are used to identify direct quotes from primary source documents. Within these quotes, the letter “s” is substituted for the old English letter “ƒ.”

During the federal period of the United States, a length of time spanning from American independence to the onset of the Romantic design period in the 1830s, a number of distinct landscape patterns evolved in the piedmont of Virginia.

By the time of the Revolution, the land had already, for the most part, been granted to wealthy Tidewater planters. Often their sons settled in the piedmont and managed cultivated plantations, leased divided tracts to poorer tenant farmers, and engaged in industry and commerce. The landscape was thus carved into large rural plantations, smaller tenant farms, and urban town lots. As is often the case, economic considerations drove decisions that produced change in these landscapes.

In the general course of conducting certain financial transactions, at least amongst the affluent, advertisements were placed in the newspaper promoting sales of property and products. These advertisements tell a story. Printed on the pages of the Alexandria Gazette were sales pitches touting attributes perceived to be of value. Reviewing the advertisements yielded insight into the landscape features that the affluent populace deemed noteworthy.

Settlement Patterns

Proving that some precepts of real estate never change, the location of farmland was paramount, and was consequently often described toward the beginning of sales advertisements. The relative location of the property in relationship to towns, particularly port towns, was often indicated as a distance in miles. Major roadways were mentioned, perhaps to reveal an improved transportation route with which farm produce could be brought to local and foreign markets. Turnpikes and waterways eased travel. The close proximity to merchant mills was also advantageous.

The subscriber wishing to remove to the western country, will sell the FARM on which he resides in Fairfax county, 11 miles from Alexandria, 9 from George Town ferry, and about the same from the Potomac bridge crossing to the city of Washington…[1]

The topographical elevation of properties is frequently touted for expansive views. Additionally, it was believed that the air at higher elevations was healthier.

…from its high elevated situation the benefit of the most salubrious air.[2]

Health considerations were often mentioned as an advantage for rural properties.

It lies adjoining the seat of Doctor Henry Rose, and would make a comfortable retreat for a town family in the sickly season.[3]

The quality of soil and availability of water were two additional selling points frequently praised. Never failing stream was a popular phrase. Farms located on major waterways had the advantage of providing fish, crabs, wild fowl, and oysters.[4]

Economic Approaches
Piedmont farmers were diversifying their crops. Tobacco, corn, wheat, rye, oats, and timothy were being grown on farms. At this time, merchants accepted most crops, especially tobacco, in lieu of cash. After 1791, tobacco was rarely mentioned in any advertisement for Virginia Piedmont Region farms in the Alexandria paper and offers to accept crops for payment no longer appeared, likely due to the establishment of a federal banking system.

In the earliest advertisements, timothy was a type of hay that was frequently mentioned. By 1789, clover was also being sown; and by 1791, orchard grass was being mentioned in advertisements. These grasses may have been introduced earlier; however, the dates of advertisements suggest time periods when they became more widespread. Mentioned several times was that timothy was being grown on the low lands.

About 50 Acres of bottom is well adapted, as experience proved, for the production of Timothy. Wheat, Rye, or Corn are produced in great abundance on the higher parts of the Farm…[5]
The increase in referring to grasses grown on farms may have been influenced by the introduction of the cradle and scythe in the 1790’s that made harvesting grass easier. Previously the hoe was used for cultivation and the sickle for cutting hay and grain. In 1793, Weeding hoes, sithes & sickles of the Philadelphia patterns were offered for sale by an Alexandria merchant.[6] Some farm advertisements touted that the timothy meadow was fit for the sythe.[7] Patents were obtained on inventions of farm tools and equipment such as the scythe, Booker’s Patent Threshing Machine (advertised in 1798), Newbold’s Patent Ploughs (advertised in 1800), Patent Corn Shelling Machine (advertised in 1804) and M’Conaughey’s Patent Hoe Harrow for cultivation of corn (advertised in 1825).[8]

At farms nearby to Alexandria, farmers grew produce for sale at local markets. One such farm was well calculated for a market garden.[9] As regards the Shuter-Hill farm, it was stated that the land
…may with the greatest ease be made to produce an abundance of vegetables, fruits, hops, and such articles for market as will always command ready-money in Alexandria. [10]
Most rural farms advertised for sale or lease had orchards containing a variety of fruit trees but predominantly they were apple and peach trees. Often it was noted that the trees were grafted. Typically leases to tenant farmers stipulated that an orchard be planted. A 300-acre leased farm adjoining the old courthouse in Falls Church had
…an apple and peach orchard. In the latter are upwards of 1,400 trees; among the former are 130 winter apple trees, some of them beginning to bear fruit. This is a very healthy situation, the plantation in good repair, a sure place for fruit.[11]
Wood was a valuable commodity and portions of most farms were left as wood lots. The wood was used for building, fencing, firewood, and in one observed instance, pines were large enough for ships lower masts.[12] One wood lot yielded on average from 15 to 20 cords of wood to the acre.[13] Rural meadows, gardens, and fields were often described as being enclosed by a post and rail fence. This was almost exclusively the type of fence mentioned during this period; however, in one instance the subscriber notes that 3,000 pannels of fence were on the land.[14] Chestnut and oak were desired for rails.[15]
Timber of every description, suitable for all building purposes, post and rails, and a quantity of hickory for firewood, will be found upon the said lots. [16]
Property owners enclosed their fields, in part to restrict access of people who would hunt animals or steal fruit and vegetables. George Washington complained that his fences (which are erected at considerable expence) are thrown down and his pastures made a common.[17]

In 1790, Piedmont farmers began experimenting with adding Plaister of Paris to the soil as manure. Farmers in northern states had experimented with this additive and found that the corn crop was larger. Instructions on how to use the plaster were spelled out in a sales advertisement in 1790, years before Loudoun farmer John Binns wrote his 1803 A Treatise on Practical Farming suggesting the use of plaster in the soil in conjunction with planting clover and deep plowing. Plaster provides lime and clover provides nitrogen to the soil.[18]
PLASTER OF PARIS.  The Subscriber has imported from New-York, and left in the hands of Messrs. Hartshorne and Donaldson for Sale, a quantity of PLAISTER of PARIS in barrels of 3 1/2 bushels each; it is already ground and fit for immediate use – In Pennsylvania, New-York, and Jerseys and Maryland, many experiments have been made of this as a Manure, and it has proved the most useful of any yet discovered – a table spoonfull to each hill of corn, laid on the top of the ground after planting, will make the crop considerably larger; and for upland meadow and flax it is also very good – The best season for sowing it is from the 1st of March to the last of May… JESSE LAWRENCE April 22, 1790 [19]
By 1801, the use of plaster to improve soil is evident as a trend begins of extolling a farm’s ability to be improved by plaster. Farmers also allowed the soil to rejuvenate by leaving fields fallow. Binns’s soil improvement strategy took hold in the area and, by 1811, landholders were touting their soil’s ability to be improved based on the plaster and clover system, also known as the Loudoun system.[20]
To increase the amount of arable land, farmers reclaimed lowlands. At the Dogue-Run Farm, part of the Mount Vernon estate, swamps had been reclaimed.[21]  George Mason suggested that some of his marsh could easily be converted into land suitable for cultivation since there was no back or current water.[22] Further south along the Potomac a farm for sale noted that
The marsh land, in its present condition, is capable of supporting an immense number of cattle, and a great part of it might be drained at an expense inconsiderable when compared with its value when drained.[23]
In addition to cattle, sheep were also raised on farms. “Grazing farm” was the nomenclature used to describe farms being used for this purpose.[24] 
Rural Gardens
Rural gardens contained fruit, vegetables, herbs, and sometimes flowers.[25]
…an elegant and useful garden (full of herbs and choice fruits in their season)…[26]
Near Alexandria, an experienced gardener laid off a large, handsome and highly manured garden, of at least ten acres.[27] Also near Alexandria was a twelve-acre lot described as
…well enclosed, with a post and rail fence, and a growing hedge all round, about 5 acres of this lot is cultivated as a Garden, and well manured, in which there are a variety of excellent bearing fruit trees, grape vines, rasberry, gooseberry, and currant bushes, a variety of herbs and flowers and 38 asparagus beds, highly manured and produced abundantly…[28]
Ornamental trees and shrubs were advertised for sale as early as 1806 and then began to be mentioned in the sales advertisements for farms. The farm called Mount-Washington had a square garden plan and an ornamental landscape described in 1808 as follows.
The garden consists of 12 large squares, the soil enriched and borders filled with fruit trees, and bushes; it is surrounded by a live cedar hedge, which also extends on each side of the house; the former proprietor possessed much taste, and collected many ornamental trees and shrubs, which are judiciously disposed about the grounds.[29]
In 1818, the garden at the estate called Lexington on Mason’s Neck was described as having:
…a falling garden of the most tasteful and costly design, filled with the rarest and most beautiful shrubberies and flowers, exotic and indigenous, all situated on a eminence, commanding a view of the rest of the tract, which extends in an unintercepted plain from the foot of the eminence to the Potomac and Occoquan…[30]
In the same newspaper edition, George Mason’s nearby Gunston estate was offered for sale. The advertisement noted that
There is a considerable extent of live fence, both useful and ornamental, two orchards of well selected apples and peach, besides an abundance of other choice fruit.[31]
Settlement Patterns
Within a town, some lots were described as being located near wharfs and principal streets. One Alexandria lot was at a location well calculated for trade, and the accommodation of tradesmen, and very convenient to deep water, where vessels of any burthen may load and unload.[32] Another lot was central in the town, and on the principal street leading from the Back Country.[33]
Also mentioned as advantageous was the proximity of lots to the public warehouses and ferry.[34]
Economic Approaches
Town lots were used for a variety of commercial purposes, including stores, taverns, tanneries, shoe shops, nurseries, apothecaries, nail manufactories, blacksmith shops, distilleries, brick-yards, etc. as well as for residences.
Clover was grown in town lots. A half-acre lot was available for rent on King Street in Alexandria, but only if it was used for a clover lot or garden. The lot was much improved. As manure has been thrown up in heaps upon it for several years the ground cannot but be as rich as could be wished.[35]
The term “garden” was used to describe Benjamin Prince & Co.’s commercial nursery near New York in an advertisement for an Alexandria garden for rent. The garden contained shrubs and fruit trees from Prince’s garden suggesting that perhaps the term “garden” was sometimes interchanged with the term “nursery.”[36] Perhaps this Alexandria garden was also a commercial nursery.
Town Gardens
One town garden was described as a very pretty garden.[37] Another contains a great quantity of fine fruit[38]

Two Alexandria taverns advertised that they have gardens. The garden at the tavern known as Spring Gardens was described in 1820 as in a high state of cultivation, and has several summer houses in it for the convenience of visitors.”[39]

Town lots and gardens were often enclosed with fencing. A parcel in the Town of Dumfries of one acre was newly paled in with a garden well inclosed. The posts for the fence were cedar, mulberry, and locust.[40] While some fencing within Alexandria was made of cedar posts and chestnut rails, many had pailing fence surrounding the lot and gardens. [41]
The whole lot and garden is under a strong pailing, and the garden well planted with a variety of choice fruit…[42]

Local Availability
Seeds, trees, shrubs, flowering plants, pots, and gardening tools were available for sale in Alexandria. See Appendices A-D for lists of seeds and root varieties, trees and shrubs, orchard trees, and gardening and farming tools & supplies.

Garden seeds were imported from London by James Kennedy, Jun. for sale at his shop in Alexandria. The seeds he advertised for sale in April 1800 were put up last October, by one of the first Seedsman in London.[43] Additionally, he sold a quantity of Drugs, Patent Medicines, Dye Stuffs, paints, &c.[44] Edward Stabler, druggist and apothecary, also sold garden seeds along with drugs and medicines.[45]

As early as 1805, American Nicholas Hingston styled himself a Seedsman. He imported seeds from London and sold them in his shop along with gardening tools, flowerpots, root glasses, groceries, and liquors. Seeds and other merchandise were also obtained locally. Hingston promised the highest prices given for Indian corn and meal, oats, buck wheat, white beans, and Indian peas, also, timothy seed.[46] Another of his advertisements read

NICHOLAS HINGSTON, Respectfully informs his friends and the public in general, that he hath removed his store to king street, next door to Mr. Jos. Thornton’s, where he hath for sale an extensive assortment of SEEDS, Both of English & American growth. The former imported this fall per the ship Sheperdess, captain Wells, via Norfolk[47]
Various stores in Alexandria sold clover seed. John M’Clellen proclaimed that his red clover seed had been collected near Philadelphia.[48]
George Custis offered red straw wheat for sale at Mount Vernon. He charged an additional 10 cents more than the price of common wheat because of the advantages of red straw wheat. He stated that its excellence comes in its repelling the Fly, and suiting the most indifferent soils better…[49]
Trees could be purchased at a nursery. In 1800, Peter Billy was the proprietor of a nursery at the lower end of Pitt Street in Alexandria. He offered for sale a variety of grafted fruit trees as well as other fruit varieties such as cherry, peach, pear, and plumb. Garden seeds were also sold at the nursery.[50] Twelve years later, when a three-year lease was offered for sale, the nursery was described as abounding with every description of bearing Fruit and Shrubbery.[51]
In addition to a general assortment of garden seeds of his own raising, William Yeates sold flowering shrubs, dwarf box for edging, …with an extensive collection of green house plants, of the most rare kinds.[52]
Catalogue Sales
In the early 1820s, advertisements began appearing in the Alexandria Gazette offering nursery stock available through catalogue purchase from nurseries in New York and New Jersey. The stock was both American grown and imported from Europe. These companies offered a greater variety of trees than had been previously advertised for sale in Alexandria, including European Lime, Magnolias, and Weeping Willows. This catalogue-marketing scheme expanded the trade area of these nurseries at a time when the American economy was suffering a depression. (i.e. 1819-1822)
In 1821, a catalogue of trees and shrubs was available from the New York nursery of Hull & Browne. Their sales advertisement, joint with Benjamin Prince & Co., offered many varieties of European and American fruit and ornamental trees, forest trees, shrubs, and plants. They assured that their trees, etc. would be carefully and securely packed up, so as to be sent with safety to any part of Europe and America.  Also for sale, were apple trees of the most valuable American sorts that were specifically propagated for the purpose of being shipped to Europe.[53]
Beginning by 1822, Daniel Smith offered to provide catalogues free of charge through his agent, George Drinker who had a store in Alexandria. Smith’s New Jersey nursery shipped fruit trees, nut-bearing trees, and ornamental shrubbery.[54]
The training and experience of gardeners employed to labor in a garden likely influenced the garden’s design. John Buzelet, a gardener from France, offered his services. He had various varieties of seeds available, though his advertisement does not specify if the seeds were imported from France. Mr. Buzelet noted that he prunes, grafts and inoculates Trees in the neatest manner.[55]
The occupation of gardener was a specialized skill and occupation of slave laborers. Bushrod Washington offered a gardener for sale in 1788 along with two young carpenters and a cook.[56] In 1817, an enslaved individual was offered for sale who gained experience working under an experienced green-house gardener.[57]
Publications of books, letter compilations, and newspaper articles influenced garden practices by spreading information to a larger audience. The American Gardener, published in Washington, D.C. in 1804, was offered for sale by several Alexandria merchants. The book, by Gardiner and Hepburn (the Late Gardeners to Gov. Mercer and Gen. Mason), was described as
…containing Ample directions for working a kitchen garden every month in the year; and copious instructions for the calculation of Flower Gardens, Vineyards, and Nurseries, Hop Yards, Green Houses, and Hot Houses. [58]
Bookstores were also selling the published letters of General George Washington written to Sir Arthur Young and Sir J. Sinclair, Bart. Agriculture was the primary topic discussed. The promotion copy read:
Few works have been published in America, that claim the agriculturists attention more than this. Added to his own experiments, opinions and calculations, it contains those of the most eminent farmers in the middle states; collected from them by himself, and transmitted to the British Board of Agriculture of which he was an honorary member.[59]
In 1803, the Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer printed a method for preserving plants that had been subjected to frost.
Before the plant has been exposed to the sun, or thaw’d after a night’s frost, it should be well sprinkled with spring water, in which sal ammoniac, or common salt, has been infused; this must be continued for some time; but immesion of the whole plant, when it can be effected, is still more efficacious. It is particularly requisite that the root should be immersed, because that part being harder withstands the frost much longer, and will not so soon thaw, owing to its being covered with earth. It is particularly useful for the exotics which are in pots, because the process can more easily be resorted to with them. The philosophical reason will be easily perceived. Indeed were plants to be watered every morning in the spring, after the cold nights, in some solution, it is probable it would preserve them greatly from the blight.[60]
The American Farmer, a weekly agriculture publication, was first issued on April 2, 1819. The editor, John S. Skinner offered subscriptions for sale in an Alexandria newspaper. The purpose of the publication was to make known all discoveries in the science, and all improvements in the practice of Agriculture and Domestic Economy—and to develope the means and designate plans of internal improvements…”[61]
In 1820, handbills with instructions for cultivation were available with the purchase of seeds.[62]
Several trends occurred during the federal period that altered the landscape.

·        Tobacco farming declined while growing grasses and grain increased.

·        Soil improvements were instituted and improved upon.

·        Labor saving farm tools and machinery were invented and patented.

·        Literature specifically on American gardening and agriculture practices began to be written and disseminated.

·        In the early 1820’s, commercial nurseries began offering greater varieties of trees, shrubs, and seeds from Europe and other regions of America through catalogue sales.

There was no emphasis on flowers in the advertisements. When flowers were mentioned, the specific varieties were not noted, as were the varieties of garden seeds, ornamental trees, and fruit bearing shrubs.
Wooden fencing on rural farms was almost exclusively noted as being post and rail fence while town lots often were enclosed with a pailing fence. Rural gardens were noted as having live hedges.
Throughout the federal time-period, the affluent populace strove to enhance their lives by way of experimentation to increase farm yields, healthier living, and the enjoyment of ornamental landscapes.

[1] E. Dulin, “A Great Bargain.,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, June 14, 1809, p. 1.

[2] Charles Alexander, “Land for Sale, GREAT BARGAIN,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, August 30, 1809, p. 4.

[3] “Land for Sale,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, September 9, 1807, p. 3.

[4] G. Weedon, Alexandria Advertiser, October 6, 1785, p. 1.

[5] Edward D. Fitzhugh, “Land for Sale, Green Level,” Alexandria Gazette, Commercial & Political, November 23, 1813, p. 4, and Henry Washington, “Land for Sale,” Alexandria Gazette, Commercial & Political, August 4, 1814, p. 1.

[6] George Hunter, The Virginia Gazette and Alexandria Advertiser, May 16, 1793, p. 3.

[7] Jmremiah Moore, “Lands for Sale in Fairfax County,” The Virginia Gazette and Alexandria Advertiser,  October 28, 1794, p. 4.

[8] William Booker, “Booker’s Patent Threshing Machine,” The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, November 1, 1798, p. 3., and “Patent Ploughs,” The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, January 14, 1800, p. 1, and Robert Hartshorne, “Patent Corn Shelling Machine,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, April 27, 1804, p. 4., and John F. Milnor, “M’Conaughey’s Patent Hoe Harrow,” Alexandria Gazette, July 12, 1825, p. 4.

[9] Susannah Ball, “For Sale or Rent,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, August 29, 1821, p. 3.

[10] Hooe and Harrison, Alexandria Advertiser, August 10, 1786, p. 4.

[11] John Wilson, “TAKE NOTICE,” The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, October 17, 1799, p. 3.

[12] William Fitzhugh, Alexandria Advertiser, June 30, 1785, p. 3.

[13] Baldwin Dade, “TO BE RENTED,” Alexandria Advertiser, February 17, 1791, p. 4.

[14] “THAT VALUABLE & EXTENSIVE FARM,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, September 23, 1803, p. 4.

[15] J. H. Hooe, “RAILS WANTED.,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, February 6, 1808,  p. 1.

[16] John Ball, “Land,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, November 21, 1806, p. 3.

[17] Geo Washington, Alexandria Advertiser, August 10, 1786, p. 3, see also R. T. Hooe, “NOTICE,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Inteligencer, July 17, 1802, p. 1.

[18] Per comments by David T. Sheid.

[19] Jesse Lawrence, “PLAISTER OF PARIS,” Alexandria Advertiser, April 22, 1790, p. 2.

[20] R. I. Taylor, “Valuable improved Land for Sale,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, November 9, 1811, p. 4., See also Francis Adams, jun., “FOR SALE,” Alexandria Gazette, Commercial & Political, September 11, 1813, p. 1.

[21] George Washington, “TO BE LET,” The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, February 20, 1796, p. 3.

[22] George Mason, “Valuable Potomac Land for Sale,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, November 29, 1821, p.4.

[23] Alfred Lee, “Farm for Sale,” Alexandria Gazette & Advertiser, September 4, 1823, p.1.

[24] Charles J. Love, “FOR SALE,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, November 28, 1805, p. 4, see also Turbuit R. Betton, “For Sale,” Alexandria Gazette, July 12, 1825, p. 4.

[25] Thos. Patten, “TO BE SOLD FIFTY TWO ACRES LAND,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, April 27, 1804, p. 2.

[26] Charles Little,  Virginia Gazette and Alexandria Advertiser, August 21, 1794, p. 1.

[27] Frances Alexander, “To be Rented for a term of years,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, January 27, 1810, p. 3.

[28] Philip R. Fendal, “Valuable Property,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, February 3, 1802, p. 1.

[29] Eliza P. Law, “Mount-Washington for Sale,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, May 6, 1808, p.1.

[30] William Mason, “Lexington for Sale,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, September 15, 1818, p.4.

[31] George Mason, “Gunston for Sale,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, September 15, 1818, p.3.

[32] “Robert Adam,” Alexandria Advertiser, April 7, 1785, p. 1.

[33] Cyrus Copper, Alexandria Advertiser, April 7, 1785, p. 3.

[34] Baldwin Dade, Alexandria Advertiser, January 19, 1786, p. 4.

[35] Thos. L. Washington, Alexandria Daily Advertiser, October 4, 1805, p. 4

[36] “To Rent,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, February 27, 1822, p. 1.

[37] Hepburn and Dundas, Alexandria Advertiser, August 10, 1786, p. 4.

[38] “Shuter’s Hill for Rent,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, April 6, 1807, p. 4.

[39] “For Sale or Rent,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, February 18, 1820, p. 3. and G. Jones, “Public Sale,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, January 11, 1820, p.3.

[40] “TO BE SOLD,” Alexandria Advertiser, July 15, 1790, p. 2.

[41] John Potts, “THE SUBSCRIBER,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, October 23, 1802, p. 4.

[42] Matthew Harrison, Alexandria Advertiser, February 8, 1787, p. 1.

[43] “Garden Seeds,“ The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, April 24, 1800, p. 4.

[44] Ibid.

[45] “Edward Stabler,” The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, April 5, 1796, p. 1.

[46] N. Hingston, “Fresh Garden Seeds,” Alexandria Daily Advertiser, March 30, 1805, p. 4.

[47] Nicholas Hingston, Alexandria Daily Advertiser, March 3, 1806, p. 4.

[48] John M’Clellen, “Clover Seed,” Alexandria Advertiser & Commercial Intelligence, April 9, 1803, p. 3.

[49] George W. P. Custis, “Red Straw Wheat,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, August 24, 1801, p.4.

[50] Peter Billy, “Fruit Trees for Sale,” The Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette, November 11, 1800, p.  4.

[51] “FOR SALE,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, March 24, 1812, p. 3.

[52] “Genuine Garden Seeds,”  Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, March 30, 1821, p. 1.

[53] “Fruit, Forest Trees, &c.,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, January 24, 1821, p. 1.

[54] George Drinker, Geo. Drinker, “Fruit trees and Ornamental Shrubbery, Alexandria Gazette, December 1, 1825, p. 1.

[55] John Buzelet, “John Buzelet,” Alexandria Advertiser, April 12, 1790, p. 1.

[56] Bushrod Washington, “”To Farmers and Planters,” Alexandria Gazette & Advertiser, 22 Octobert 1822, and For Sale, Negroes, Stock, and Plantation Utensils.,” Alexandria Advertiser, December 4, 1788, p. 1.

[57] “For Sale,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, November 15, 1817, p. 4.

[58] Alexandria Daily Advertiser, March 30, 1805, p. 1.

[59] “Just Published,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, June 7, 1803, p. 4.

[60] “USEFUL RECEIPT,” Alexandria Advertiser and Commercial Intelligencer, June 6, 1803, p. 3.

[61] John S. Skinner, “TO THE Cultivators of the Soil THE AMERICAN FARMER,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, September 8, 1820, p. 4.

[62] “Nicholas Hingston,” Alexandria Gazette & Daily Advertiser, April 25, 1820, p. 1.

Appendix A: Seed and Root Varieties        Appendix B: Trees and Shrubs       Appendix C: Orchard Trees

Appendix D: Gardening and Farming Tools and Supplies